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Wednesday, March 21, 2012


Informed Consent is a dynamic process to inform the subjects of the risks, causes, profits and benefits of participation in a clinical research trial. Informed consent is a legal and ethical and essential principle and should be in writing. It has been an integral part of the ethical research. Before any research, the scientists and researchers should take the informed consent from the participants and volunteers in writing way.

According to Prof. SC Malik, Informed consent is a legal process to ensure the patient known the risks, causes, profit and benefit of proposed the treatment and intervention should be included informing the client of the nature of treatment in possible art of native and potential risks and benefit of the treatment. Informed consent must be valid and voluntary.

Informed Consent is a dynamic process not just a piece of paper on which we get signature. This is a process by which the subject voluntarily confirmed his or her willingness to participate and he or she has been informed of all aspect of trials and data are relevant to the subject who is participant. There should be written document, sign and dated on Informed Consent form. When the written informed consent is not possible with the signature and thumb impression then it is necessary to take verbal consent and two witnesses should be documented.

In the case of drugs study, when we find the patient in the state of unconscious and not in the state of the signature then in such condition, we are supposed to get only thumb impression and the legal relative’s thumb impression will not be accepted at all.

There are some cases in which we need to get the fresh informed consent re-consent when we find that the patient is unconscious, new information has come up, the change of the essence of studies, change in treatment, modality, size and procedure.

In some circumstances, the third party should be informed and involve ensuring and total accountability of the process. Similarly the Institutional Review Board where there does not exist any trial section then it is compulsory to tie up with other existing Institutional Review Board to set their studies and trials.

 It has been seen that the language of participant has been a barrier in the way of the communication between the patient and an investigator or scholar during getting informed consent; so in such situation, we must need some translators to translate the speech of the investigator into the language of the participant and vice-versa because informants should know everything about the research or experiment that is going to be conducted on them.  

It is very important for the investigators to answer and reply to all queries asked by the patient and the participant clearly step by step. It is also important to disclose all the information going to discuss and experiment. The investigators are not assumed and supposed to hide anything regarding the research and experiments from the participants and patients.

There are three main principles involved in the research and experiment of the Bioethics.

1.  Information: The investigators and scholars must give all information about the research and studies to the subjects. They are also supposed to tell them about the procedure, purpose, goal, profit, benefit, cause, risks and alternative procedure. The participants have the authority and full rights to withdraw themselves from the research and experiments in the middle or at the beginning and final without any logical reasons.
2. Comprehension: The investigators and scholars must first comprehend the psychological, mental and physical conditions of the participants and their voluntarily willingness. The investigators are supposed to test first them before they start doing experiment and research on them and ensure that the participants are not mental retardation, severely disability, any language disorder and psychological disorder.
3. Voluntariness: It is nothing but informed consent. The investigators and scholars should get voluntarily informed consent from the participants. The investigators and scholars do not have the right and authority to force them to involve in the research and experiments. The investigators also are not supposed to threaten the participants by saying that they will lose their jobs for getting informed consent.    

It is very important to keep in mind is that the investigators are supposed to reduces the risks and causes as much as they can do according to their capacity and capability. They (scholars) first try to find out the alternative procedure and method to conduct the research which can reduce risks and causes and give more benefits and profits. They need to be very careful when they conduct the experiments and research on human subject. They have to determine that it is necessary to take human subject for conducting the research or there is an alternative way where research and experiment can be conducted on animals that has seen earlier research in old time.

There is other important thing which is necessary to be kept in mind is that the investigators should be very careful about the social class, race, cast, community and of course religion of the participants especially in India. There should not be any bias at all with respect to class, cast and religion and minor community when we choose the participants for conducting research on them.

Dr. SC Malik has also emphasized the guiding principles of the research that was published in the Belmont Report by US National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research.

1. Respect for person: This is the first guiding principle of the research that requires the choice of autonomous individuals should be respected and protected. From the principle of respect for persons, the individual is seen and viewed as an autonomous agent and we can give the opportunity to the participants to choose whether they will participate in clinical research or not, it is completely depend on them. We can involve them in clinical research forcefully. The Belmont Report also discusses about the voluntary nature of informed consent and explains that the information must be complete, understandable, and presented in an unhurried fashion.
In this category, it is very necessary and obligatory to take informed consent from the participant and volunteers before conducting any research study and also compulsory to maintain the confidentiality between patient and doctors. Ethically the investigator is responsible for determining whether the subject really understands this information properly.
2. Beneficence: This is the second guiding principle which requires that participant in research should be associated with the balance of potential benefits and harms. The harm and cause of the participant should be reduced as much as the researchers can do.
3. Justice: This is the third guiding principle that requires an equitable distribution of the burdens and benefits of research. Research must not exploit vulnerable people or exclude without any good reason that may benefit from participation in a study.

The Belmont Repot    

The Belmont Report was issued in the United States in 1979. This report talks about the basic principles identified by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, which was established as a result of the National Research Act in 1974. There are three major principles came out from the Belmont Report that is, Beneficence, Justice and Respect for persons.

In the United States, there are two sets of regulations regarding informed consent: Regulations found in the Code of Federal Regulations Titles 21 and 45:21 CFR 50 and 56, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, and 45 CFR Part 46, where applicable, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Regulations.

Informed Consent: Confidentiality

If a person gives information to another in confidence and there is an obligation on the person receiving the information not to disclose it to someone. In most research studies, the participants provide information they may consider confidential or personal. In the informed consent process, they must be informed about the degree of confidentiality throughout the study and once the study is over.

The obligation of confidentiality is that the information must not be shared with others and the information should be remaining in between the provider and the receiver. Consequently, there is both an individual and a public expectation that information given to a health professional or public health authority in the context of the clinical relationship will not be disclosed to third parties. The obligation of confidentiality provides the foundation for trust in the therapeutic relationship.

There is also an understanding that confidentiality cannot be absolute and sometimes it may be permissible or even legally required to break or breach confidentiality. Various Medical Association and healthcare teams raise questions of how much information can be shared within the team and who is recognized as a team member for this purpose.

The Importance of Confidentiality

There are a number of moral foundations for the importance of confidentiality in healthcare. The expectation that information disclosed to a health professional will remain confidential and encourage patients to be open with their clinicians.  If the patient thought that this was not the case then they may withhold important information that is necessary for effective treatment or for the protection of others.

It is duty of clinician to respect patient autonomy in medical decision making. Competent patients have a right to control the use of information pertaining to themselves. A clinician, who shares that information with others without the patient’s consent, does not respect the patient’s autonomy and will have behaved in a morally questionable way- because patient is an unaware of the breach of confidentiality. Breaking the duty of confidentiality and trust is a betrayal of trust.

Breaking of Confidentiality

As J.S. Mill observed in 1859 that personal freedom may legitimately be constrained when the exercise of such freedom place others at risks of harms,(Mill 1962).
In the context of confidentiality, this suggests that a patient’s right to control how personal information is shared with others is constrained by an obligation not to harm others.

Some US legislation permits disclose of health information for epidemiological and research purpose. UK Common Law recognizes that the breach of confidentiality is lawful in some circumstances, mainly when there is a risk of serious harm to others. Professional Codes of Ethics such as American Medical Association, Australia Medical Association, Canada Medical Association, and General Medical Council specify Confidentiality can be breached if requires by law or in circumstances where there is a significant risks of serious harms to others.


Mr. A is 35 years old. He had had unprotected sex with prostitute on at least two occasions. Although he is asymptomatic, he is worried about the possibility that he may have a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) and consult his physician. After conducting a careful physical examination and blood test, a result came with the HIV Positive. The Physician offers to meet with his wife and assist to disclose the information but he states that he does not want his wife to know about it.

Mr. A’s physician should advise him that his wife needs to be made aware of his condition and that if necessary his wife will be informed without his consent. It is important to explain the reason why his confidentiality may be breached in this situation and to make every effort to maintain a therapeutic relationship with him.
In Jurisdictions, where notification of HIV status to a public health authority is legally required. The risks of serious harm to Mr. A’s wife would be the justification for a breach of confidentiality.

Protection of Privacy and Confidentiality

It is very important to protect the privacy of individuals and participants and to ensure that this information is released only when necessary. Soler and Peters (1993) outline several reasons for protecting the privacy of children and families and participants.

·  Confidentiality restrictions protect embarrassing personal information from disclosure. This information may include histories of emotional instability, marital, conflicts, medical problems, physical or sexual abuse, alcoholism, drug use, limited, education or erratic employment.
·  Confidentiality provisions also prevent the improper dissemination of information about children and families that might increase the likelihood of discrimination against them. Such information—about HIV status, mental health history, use of illegal drugs, or charges of child abuse, can be harmful if released. Harm can occur even if records show that the information in unproven or inaccurate.
·  Protecting confidential information can be necessary to protect personal security. For example, in a domestic violence situation, an abused woman who leaves home may be in great danger if law enforcement personnel disclose her new location.
·  Confidentiality provisions also protect family security. Many immigrant families, for example, shy away from using public health clinics or other social services for fear that the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) will take action against them.
·  Restricting the information that human service agencies receive may also protect job security. Some information such as a history of mental health treatment may have no connection with a person’s actual job performance but could jeopardize the individual’s position, likelihood of promotion, or ability to find new positions.
·  Children and families also want to avoid prejudice or differential treatment by people such as teachers, school administrators, and service providers. Teachers may lower their expectations for the children they know are eligible for food stamps or free school lunches. This may set in motion a self fulfilling prophecy in which lowered expectations lead to lowered performance.
·   Confidentiality provisions also may be necessary to encourage individuals to make use of service designed to help them. Adolescents may avoid seeking mental health service at a school based clinic, for example if they believe that information will get back to their teachers, parents or peers. The same holds for birth control or HIV related medical consultations.

McWhinney, Haskins Herkenham and Hare note that confidentiality provisions actually promote that participation of families in seeking and receiving services:
“Assurance of confidentiality is important because it enables people to seem help without fear of such results as stigma, retaliation, disapproval or damage to other relationships. Confidentiality encourages both full disclosures, which is essential for effective treatment, and the maintenance of trust, the means by which treatment is effected.”

Compensation for participants

It is very necessary and important to compensate participants for their Time, Travel, and Inconvenience. The amount or value of this compensation should not be so high as to unduly influence a potential participant’s decision to participate in the study.

Input from community representatives is needed at the beginning of the study to determine the appropriate in the study.
Information must be disclosed about available treatment, the degree and duration of treatment, and who would pay for it in the case of injury or complications related to the research. Community representatives need to be aware of the research, institution, national or sponsor policies on compensations available to the research participants.

Sometimes treatment will be provided free of charge for injury or complications associated with the research. However the resources available for this purpose may be limited. For example, in an experiment study to prevent HIV, some of the participants may become infected; it is important to state whether such participants will receive treatment and if so, for how long. The degree or kind of health care that will actually be provided should be well understood by the potential participant.

Be sure all participants understand that they will not receive free general health care during the study.

There is difference between benefits and compensation and should be made known to participants. Compensation, usually in form of payment for transportation expenses or a token of appreciation, is generally given at the enrollment stage or after a visit to the study clinic. Benefits such as drugs, health care, and the like are usually given only during the study.


Confidentiality and Informed consent, Center for mental Health in schools UCLA

June Smith Tylor, “Informed Consent, Confidentiality, and Subject Rights in Clinical Trials”

Research Ethics Training Curriculum For Community Representatives.


Teacher Oriented Method is a method of the teacher, used in the classroom while teaching the foreign or second language. It is universal truth that Teacher is all in all in the classroom who is a keen observer, processor, initiator and creator of learning and effective atmosphere in the classroom. It is the teacher who observes the psychology, interest and sprit of the student in the classroom before applying the method of the second language teaching.
Teacher Oriented Method is a method like GTM, Direct Method, and Competence based Method and so on, but it is different from other methods and relevantly reveals that how, when and by which method teacher handles and manages the students in the classroom while teaching the foreign and second language. Teacher plays an important role and significant role in the classroom while teaching the second language. There are many teaching methods of the second and foreign languages have been proposed in the America and Europe by keeping the context of America and Europe in the minds not other countries like India and South Asian Countries. I think that the foreign countries are very different from the South Asian Countries in respect to culture, tradition, custom, civilization and social diversity, that is why no single language teaching method is suitable, relevant and appropriate in the context of India and South Asian Countries. In this circumstance, it is only Teacher who makes the methods suitable and appropriate in the class just after observing the psychology, conscious, interest and curiosity and diversity of the students and their environment in the classroom.
I am not talking in the vacuum but collected the data from many English language teachers of different public schools in the heart of Delhi, and then I observed it and became able to propose the Teacher Oriented Method (TOM) in which Teacher is considered as a major factor in the classroom rather than methods. The data reveal some amazing facts is that as we know that India is known as a sign of diversity among the people and it is shown in the classroom too, in such condition the data pointed out that teacher plays a significant and important role in the classroom after observing the diversity of the student in the classroom; In India where the students of all community pursue education together in the same school irrespective of religion, region, caste, class, and creed; in such circumstances, it is very difficult and tough for teacher to use one method of English language teaching in the classroom. In this critical situation, it is totally depend on teacher how and by which method s/he manages and handles the classroom and make the students skillful, talented, and native like competence and fluency in all objectives (speaking, listening, reading & comprehending) of the second and foreign language, although it is not easy task and job for teacher where diversity among students too is deep rooted in the core heart of society and community in Indian context and South Asian Countries as well.
After analyzing and observing the data and the context of Indian society and its diversity with respect to classes, family-backgrounds and communities completely, I have decided to propose the Teacher Oriented Method keeping this in the mind that it would be really helpful in Indian context and South Asian Countries.
This paper by the title of Teacher Oriented Method, is trying to describe the importance and magnificent perfomance of the teacher who with his or her best effort of level attempts to teach the students without being slave of any kind of methods, using his or her own method, having observed the the atmospher and psychology of the students and their levls. This paper is based on the fact of field works and empirical experience and research works. I have used the primary data for the term paper with the help of primary method. During the data collection in the field work, I have used a list of questionnaires (Quantitative method) and interview and observation (Qualitative method) too.
During the data collection, I went on going to school to school and asked the questions to the English teachers and had the precious time of teachers for interviews. I had collected the data from government and public schools with the 1st to 10th standard and nursery to 8th standard. I had been able to interact with them for almost 45 minutes per teacher.
It is very difficult to collect the data from the school teacher in time of the school. Sometimes the principals of the school do not allow to collect the data from the teacher because the class may be disturbed and interrupted and due to sex discrimination. Despite in such a circumstance, I had been able to collect the empirical data from four English Teachers nicely and including myself.
I have given all the questionnaires and the name of informants in the Appendix page.
Teacher Oriented Method is based on a functional, interactional, active, processor, performer and problem solver perspective of teacher and instructor. It seeks to teach the language in relation to cultural, social and linguistic context in which it is used. It seeks to teach language from three theoretical views of language and the nature of language such as the Structural View (structure of elements or morphemes), Functional View (semantic and communicative dimension), and Interactional View (conversational and interactional activity).
It refers to the importance of the teacher and his method in whole meaningful context and directs the teacher not to method. Teacher plays an important, effective and significant role in the second and foreign language rather than method.
The primary objectives of Teacher Oriented Method are to teach a practical command of the four basic skills of language. The main motto is to make the student understand, whatever the teacher wants to teach in the classroom within the shadow of the syllabus and solve the problems. Teacher pays attention to individual and social groups in relation with psychological, social and linguistic point of views.
As Chomsky points out that human beings are born with a language faculty and innate capacity in the material world and have the capability to learn and acquire language, then why some students are not able to learn and acquire language as fast as others do in the classroom? According to me the answer is very easy and simple. This is the lack of interest, motivation, particular attention and encouragement of teacher towards some unfortunate and the poor students in the classroom. It is often seen in the classroom that teacher always pays attention to the talented, skilful, and good students while teaching the language or other subjects not to the poor students who have too capability and capacity to learn the same course and the contents but lack of somewhat confidences, encouragements, motivations, special attentions and cares of teachers.
Keeping this in the mind, I have attempted to bring such method by which teacher can pay attention to each and every student in the classroom irrespective of his religion, caste, race, class and creed. The teacher and the student relation like that of parent to child in the classroom and the classroom is like a family. Teacher is the parent of all the students in the family of classroom.
The basic syllabus of Teacher Oriented Method is the following contents:
  • Grammar should be taught deductively or inductively according to the class situation.
  •  A list of every day vocabulary should be given to the students every day.
  • A list of frequent and common phrases and vocabulary with their appropriate occurrences and functional uses in the sentences should be taught.
  • A list of structures and patterns of English or second language should be taught.
  • Materials and class handouts based on the topic should be given to the students for the study. (e.g. ‘Co-education’ is the topic then teacher should provide the materials and handouts of it.)
  • Speaking and Listening should be focused through group discussion in the class among students under the guidance of teacher.
  • For writing improvement, students are given a task to write at least one page every day about their daily activities or write a summary of a topic learned in the classroom.
  • Reading and Comprehension should be focused through passage and reading texts.
  • Pronunciation of vocabulary and grammatical rules should be corrected by teacher.
  • Task and home work should be given to the students based on class teaching and study.
  • Bilingual method (Target or Source language) should be used by teacher if necessary.

In Teacher Oriented Method, teacher is all in all and plays an effective and important role in the mode of second language teaching in the classrooms. Some salient features of teacher are given:
§  Teacher should use Bilingual Method (Target language & mother tongues) if necessary.
§  Teacher should pay attention to the poor students much more than talented students.
§  Teacher should try to find out the problems of students which are obstacle and hindrance in the path of learning.
§  Teacher should speak very politely and gently in the classroom.
§  Teacher should make friendly relationship with the students and be a wide frank in class.
§  Teacher should behave like parents and try to know the problem of students.
§  Teacher sometimes should tell the students some jokes if students not in study mood.
§  Teacher should address and call the students by their good names respectfully.
§  Teachers should not lose their temper in the classroom at the students.
§  Teacher should not tell and teach the topic about which they are not sure of.
§  Teacher should make the classroom and topic interesting and enjoyable.
§  Teacher can use any method out of 16 methods to teach the student according to the situation of the classroom.
§  Teacher can use more than one method like GTM, Drill Method, Audiolingual Method and so on to teach the second language learning in the classroom. A single method cannot be relevant, suitable and appropriate in Indian context.
§  Teacher should check the homework and correct it regularly every day.
§  Teacher should encourage and appreciate the hardworking and laborious students by giving good grades or marks, complements and appreciations.
§  Teacher’s motivation, encouragement, appreciation, inspiring speech and effective suggestion work like as a tonic medicine for the students as it works to the patient.
§  Teacher should try to communicate with the students in target language and can speak source language too if necessary.
§  Teacher should attempt to make the learners able to grasp the ‘spirit’ or ‘feel’ of target language and not just its component form.
§  Teacher should attempt to create and produce the ‘Inner Criteria’ among the students which allows learners to monitor and self- correct their own production.  
§  Teacher should test the student’s skills, talent, knowledge, proficiency, competencies and performances in all four objectives of the target language to know exactly what needs to be taught and to what extent the learners have achieved the proficiency.  
§  Teacher has the responsibility to provide a conveyance for communication in an appropriate way to the learner’s proficiency level.
§  Teacher (knows as ‘Counselor’) translates the learner’s sentences into the foreign or second language, and the learners then repeat this to other members of the groups.
The learner plays an important and responsible role in the process of second or foreign language learning and teaching too. There are many following salient features of the learner:
v  Learner is required simply to listen and comprehend what the teacher says and to respond to questions and commands in the initial stages of learning.
v   Learner is supposed to ask the question politely to the teacher as much as possible.
v  Leaner has the natural tendency and ability to commit mistakes and errors in the process of second language learning and that is an inherent feature of learners.
v  Learner is supposed not to feel shy and hesitation in asking the any question to the teacher in the classroom.
v  Leaner must communicate with his/her teacher frankly in target language as much as possible and with other social groups too regularly.
v  Learner is supposed to think, realize, feel, and create concept only in target language.
v  Learner is supposed to repeat the sentence, corrected by teacher and make more than ten sentences in the same structure and practice it honestly.
v  Leaner is supposed to engage in various group tasks such as small group discussion of a topic, preparing a conversation, preparing a summary of a topic for presentation to the teacher.
v  Learner can record conversations and speech in the target language given by teacher and can listen it in spare time and try to comprehend it properly.
v  Learner can analyze and study structures of target- language sentences in order to focus on particular lexical usage or grammatical rules.
v  Learners are supposed to engage in free conversation with the teacher or with other learners. This might include discussion of what they learned as well as feelings they had about how they learned.
v  Learners are supposed to take an active role in ensuring comprehensible input given by teacher; learn and use conversational management techniques to regulate input.
v  Learner is supposed to start speaking the target language without thinking of mistakes and errors in the productions because mistakes and errors are the steps of stare and integral part of the learning process.
v  Learners are supposed to respect the teacher who is considered as a form of God.

It refers to the actual moment to moment techniques, practices, and behaviors that operate in teaching a language according to a particular method. It is the level at which we describe how a method realize its approach and design in classroom behavior. At the level of design we saw that a method will advocate the use of certain types of teaching activities as a consequence of its theoretical assumptions about language teaching and learning. At the level of procedure, we are concerned with how these tasks and activities are integrated into lessons and used as the basis for teaching and learning.
In nut cell, procedure focuses on the way a method handles the presentation, practice and feedback phases of teaching.
Ø  The first class may begin with the introduction of students and teacher. So that teacher and learners get chance to know each other properly.
Ø  Language teaching begins with the spoken language. Material is taught orally before it is presented in written form.
Ø  Teacher can teach grammar and its rules and sentences structures to the students inductively or deductively by using bilingual method in which teacher can use the target or source language.
Ø  Reading and writing are introduced once a sufficient lexical and grammatical basis is established.
Ø  The student should be given the tasks and exercises to do in the classroom in presence of teacher on the basis of teaching rules and sentences structures of the target language.
Ø  The learning of structure through the practice of patterns of sound, order and form rather than by explanation.
Ø  The teacher may encourage learners to address questions to one other or to the teachers.
Ø  Question-answer drilling, in which the teacher gets one students to ask a question and another to answer until most students in the class have practiced asking and answering the new question form.
Ø  Correction, in which the teacher indicates by shaking his head, repeating the errors, etc., that there is a mistake and invites the student or a different student to correct it. Where possible the teacher does not simply correct the mistake himself. He gets students to correct themselves so they will be encouraged to listen to each other carefully in the classroom. That is a very effective tool to be used in the classroom while teaching.  
Ø  Question and answers related to the student’s personal experience but centered on the theme of the dialogue. 
Ø  Teacher should teach vocabulary and its types viz Active and Passive vocabulary by the principles of selection and gradation in the classroom.
Ø  The new vocabulary should be taught by showing actual objects, using visual devices, by performing actions and by creating verbal situations in the classroom.
Ø  The selection of vocabulary with its principles like word’s validity and its usefulness, frequency and its popularity, structural value, universality, productivity and regional value should be given to the students for memorization and learning.
Ø  Pupils get more language practice and they have to speak more second language in the classroom or around the classroom.
Ø  Group discussion should be conducted regularly in the classroom and learners should be as active participants getting much more time to speak and discuss the topic among them.
Ø  Students are encouraged to ask questions and to copy sentences from the board with notes on meaning and usage in the class and this can be their ‘class-text-book’ for home study.
Ø  In an intermediate or advanced class, a teacher may encourage groups to prepare a paper and article for presentation to the class or teachers.
Ø  The teacher uses colored rods together with charts and gestures to lead the students into producing the words and basic grammatical long numbers.
Ø  The students read the sounds aloud, first in chorus and then individually.
Ø  After the students can pronounce the sounds, the teacher moves to a second set of charts containing words frequently used in the language, including numbers. The teacher leads the students to pronounce long numbers.
Ø  Teachers make the learners able to discover of generalizations or rules underlying the functional expression of structure.
Above principles and techniques are given here to the teacher which are used in the classroom regularly but still the teacher and instructor know far better how to use technique and trick in the classroom to teach languages after observing and perceiving the psychology, curiosity, emotion  and interest of the students in the classroom. It is seen universally that teachers do not necessarily follow the procedures a method prescribes because they have to see and follow the classroom observations. Teachers always teach the second or foreign language learning keeping the classroom’s observation in their mind, not what the principles of procedures say about that.
I would like to conclude the soul of the term paper by keeping the empirical data and my own experiences and observations in the mind. The data and myself are the eyewitness of the important role, functional, interaction and devoted performance of the teachers in the school and educational institutions that is why I have dared to propose the Teacher Oriented Method (TOM) is a method which can be used to teach any foreign or second language in India or South Asian countries where South Asian countries are well known for their multilingualism, diversity in culture and customs, and community in the society. I think this method would be very helpful in teaching the second or foreign language in the village areas and countryside of the city and town in both Government school and private school but May not for elite, high esteem and metropolitan schools (e.g. Delhi Public School, some International schools in Delhi and so on) at the same time.
The method describes the issues of the second language teaching in terms of approach, design and procedure. This method is basically based on the functional, interactional performance and importance of the teacher who is all in all in the second language teaching rather than method in the classroom. The veteran and skilful teacher cannot sell his/her freedom and be a slave to any method whatever its merits. He should select effective and influential features of any method which can be effective in particular circumstances.

A list of informants is given below:

Md. Ansary
10 Yrs
Mrs. Kishwar
7 Yrs
Md. Azhar
2 Yrs
Miss. Farhana
4 Yrs

A list of questionnaires is given below:

1.      By which method do you teach English language in the classroom?
2.      How do you teach Grammar and its set of rules and structures of the target language?
3.      How do you provide the vocabulary and phrasal word for the learners?
4.      How do you teach the vocabulary and phrasal words in the classroom?
5.      Which language do you use in the classroom while teaching the target language?
6.      How do you teach a new vocabulary and structure of the language in the classroom?
7.      During the teaching of any objective of the language, what is your goal and aim?
8.      How do you focus on the skill of speaking and listening in the classroom?
9.      How do you focus on the skill of reading and writing in the classroom?
10.  Which method do you like most in teaching English language in the classroom?
11.  Do you use more than one method in language teaching time to time?
12.  Do you observe students and the class atmosphere before you teach English language?
13.  When students do not do the home works then in such situation what do you do?
14.  In which method do you believe that it may be effective and useful for the students?
15.  Do you give any physical or mental punishment to the students in the classroom?
16.   According to you and your experience, which thing plays an important and effective role in the second language teaching any method or teacher him/herself?
17.  How do you teach the small children or students (2nd or 3rd stand)?
18.  Can you tell me about your observations and experiences as a veteran teacher who always try his/her level best to teach students English language?
19.  What are the major tonic and factor given by the teacher to the students in the classroom for their motivation, encouragement, enthusiastic and inner & self confidence?
20.  Do you tell any story and jokes to the students when they are not in a study mood and they want to do something in addition to study for refreshment sometimes in class?

MT- Mother Tongue
OT- Other Tongue
OM- Other Method
ELTM- English Language Teaching Method
DM- Direct Method
GTM- Grammar Translation Method

Ellis, Rod. (2005), Analyzing Learner Language Oxford Press.
Flowerdew, J. and Miller, L (2005), Second Language Listening, Cambridge University Press.
Richards, J.C & Rodgers T.S. (2001),Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching.Cambridge    University Press.
Troike, S. M.(2006), Introducing Second Language Acquisition, Cambridge University Press.